Interjections And Conjunction
Interjections are words or phrases which are used to express emotion or to catch the reader’s attention. Interjections are rarely used in formal or business writing. They usually use interjections in advertising, fiction, informal writing and personal letter.
1) COMMON INTERJECTION WORDS
Ah, alas, congratulation, good grief, great, help, hey, hooray, hurry, my goodness, never, no, no way, oh, ough, outstanding, ugh, wow…
– Congratulation! You pass your exam.
– Ouch! I cut my finger.
– Help! I’m going to fall down.
2) EXCLAMATION STRUCTURE
Exclamations are often constructed with “how, what, so and such”.
1. a) Exclamation with “how”
How + Adjective + !
– Apple! How nice!
– John! How handsome!
How + Adjective/Adverb + Subject + Verb + !
– How hot it is!
– How beautifully she sings!
1. b) Exclamation with “what”
What + a/an + Adjective + Singular Countable Noun + !
– What a lovely girl!
– What an honest friend!
What + Adjective + Plural Noun/Uncountable Noun + !
– What clever students!
– What nice soup!
What + Object + Subject + Verb + !
– What a beautiful smile she has!
– What a friendly student he is!
1. c) Exclamation with “so”
So + Adjective/Adverb + !
– He walks so fast!
– They are so generous!
1. d) Exclamation with “such”
Such + a/an + (Adjective) + Singular Countable Noun + !
– She is such a mean girl!
– He is such a talkative person!
Such + (Adjective) + Plural Noun/Uncountable Noun + !
– They have such lovely children!
– He drinks such strong coffee!
Strong interjections are punctuated with an exclamation point. (Wow! Ouch! Hooray!). The first word following the exclamation point is capitalized since it is the first word in a new sentence.
Milder interjections are set off by commas and often introduce a sentence (indeed, yes, well). The word following the comma is not capitalized because it is a continuation of the same sentence.
– Excellent! That was a perfect dive.
– You may be saying, “Hey! Why is the office cold?”
– No, we can’t visit you this summer.
– Well, I just thought I’d ask.
Conjunction is a word which is used to link a word or a group of words to the other part of the sentences and it shows the relationship between them. There are four kinds of Conjunction as follow:
1) Coordinating Conjunctions
2) Correlative Conjunctions
3) Subordinating Conjunction
4) Adverbial Conjunctions/Linking Adverbs
1) COORDINATING CONJUNCTION
Coordinating conjunction is used to join a single word like noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, phrase or clause. There are seven Coordinating conjunctions that are called FANBOYS. They are For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet and So.
- Sentence + , + FANBOYS + Sentence
- She stares at me, for she loves me.
- I know you, and I pity you, too.
- He can’t dive a car, nor can you dive it.
- She is honest with him, but he doesn’t believe her.
- Don’t move, or I will kill you.
- They didn’t learn their lessons, yet they passed their lessons.
- We are tired, so we stopped playing football.
For: is used to show a reason or a cause.
Example: We come here, for we want learn English.
And: is used to show additional information.
Example: She misses me, and she also loves me.
Nor: is used to show impossible result.
Example: She doesn’t love you, nor does she pity you.
But: is used to show the differences.
Example: They have many friends, but he still feels lonely.
Or: is used to show another choice.
Example: Students must learn their lesson, or they will fail the exams.
Yet: is used to show unexpected result.
Example: We study hard, yet we still fail our exams.
So: is used to show the result.
Example: She is very beautiful and friendly, so every body falls in love with her.
2) CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTION
Correlative conjunctions are conjunctions which are used in pair and they emphasize the elements that join together. There are four pairs of Correlative conjunctions as follow:
1) Both …………………….and………………………….
2) Either …………………..or……………………………
4) Not only ………………but also…………………….
– I drink both wine and beer. (noun with noun)
– She either eats cake or drink beer. (verb with verb)
– He is neither famous nor popular. (adjective with adjective)
– She speaks not only sweetly but also softly. (adverb with adverb)
3) SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION
Subordinating conjunctions are a word or phrase which is used to join the unequal elements. One element is called “main clause” and another is called “subordinate clause” which cannot stand alone. Those Subordinating Conjunctions are:
After, although, as, as much as, because, before, how, if, in order that, since, than, that, unless, until, what, where, when, which, why, who, whom, whose, whoever, whatever…
– She is honest although she is poor.
– I hope to see you before you go somewhere tomorrow.
– He will kill himself unless she loves him.
– She loves whoever is humble and kind.
4) ADVERBIAL CONJUNCTIONS/ LINKING ADVERBS
Adverbial conjunctions/Linking adverbs are the adverbs that are used to join two independent clauses. Adverbial conjunctions/Linking adverbs show the relationship between two sentences; and in general, adverbial conjunctions/linking adverbs express the result, contrast, or continuation.
|As a result||However||Further|
|As a consequence||Nonetheless||In addition|
|Hence||On the other hand||Moreover|
Sentence + ; + Linking Adverb + , + Sentence
– They have never learned their lessons; as a result, they fall their lessons.
– He tries to satisfy her; however, she doesn’t love him.
– You pity me; moreover, you give me some money.
– Please stop chatting; otherwise, I will punish.